SUSTAINABILITY OF WOMEN’S BUSINESSES:
THE CASE OF KAGERA REGION IN TANZANIA
Aurelia N. Kamuzora
The majority of Tanzanian women are categorised as being economically poor. Traditional roles of women are reproductive, managing domestic chores and nurturing and caring for children, families including husbands. In addition to traditional roles, women receive credit from the Government and other credit providers in order to start businesses, for which they also pay taxes. However, sustainability of the women’s businesses is a critical question open for research. This research investigated the factors affecting the sustainability of women’s businesses in two of six districts (Bukoba Urban and Bukoba Rural districts) in Kagera Region, which is located in north-western Tanzania. It focused on variables thought to affect women’s businesses, namely: education, sources and availability of capital, gender issues, location of the businesses, and enabling environment. Random numbers were used in the probabilistic sampling techniques so as to give equal chances to women’s businesses in a sampling frame obtained from the credit providers’ offices and from Tanzania Revenue Authority. The data collected were analysed using Regression Model and Explorative Factor Analysis. Information was summarised through descriptive statistics using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results of the study indicated that women’s businesses were mainly related to female roles and about 38 per cent of such businesses were food-oriented. Women who had started businesses with their own capital, and who therefore had decision-making power over such businesses, had sustained businesses. In contrast, women’s businesses in which the women themselves had no decision-making power were less sustainable compared to those started and run independently by women. The findings also revealed that the women in rural areas had limited access to credit. Nevertheless, women who had started businesses with their own capital seemed also to have more sustainable businesses than those who had received capital from their husbands, credit providers or other sources. To help improve sustainability of women’s businesses, therefore, Government should, among other measures, transform the business culture through education that entails development of a gender-conscious curriculum in the entire education system.
DETERMINANTS OF GUMUZ GIRLS'
PRIMARY SCHOOL PARTICIPATION IN MANDURA DISTRICT, ETHIOPIA
The main goal of this study was to identify the major determinants of Gumuz girls' primary school participation in Mandura district and indicate areas of intervention to policy makers and planners. To achieve this goal, a descriptive survey method was employed. Both qualitative and quantitative data and information were collected using questionnaires, interviews and documents from Mandura District Social and Economic Office. A sample of four primary schools and the surrounding Farmers’ Associations were included in the study. The main sources of data and information were 40 teachers, 62 students, 30 parents and 30 out-of-school Gumuz girls from these areas. Besides, documents from Mandura District Social and Economic Office on students’ enrolment, repetition and dropout rates at primary schools in the last seven academic years (1994/95–1999/2000) were consulted to examine the current status of Gumuz girls' primary school participation as compared to their male counterparts. Twenty-five factors, which were assumed to affect Gumuz girls’ primary school participation in the district, were presented to the respondents. The items were grouped under three major categories: institutional, socio-economic, and socio-cultural factors. Each item was prepared in a Likert-scale where each respondent was asked to give his/her opinion along the continuum ‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’ against each item. Also open-ended questions were raised to solicit additional information from the respondents. Finally, the data were analyzed and interpreted using percentages, mean scores, and t-tests. The t-test was used to determine if there were any significant differences between perceptions of respondents in schools (teachers and students) on the one hand, and respondents out of school (parents and out-of-school Gumuz girls) on the other hand on each item asked in the questionnaires and interviews. The open-ended items were analysed using qualitative descriptions. The findings indicated that four of the 13 institutional factors: distance from home to school, lack of secondary schools, the school's schedule and weak school-community relationships were the major barriers for the low primary school participation of Gumuz girls’ in the district. Out of the four socio-economic factors, poor family background to pay for school expenses, and the demand for girls' labour for household chores and farm activities were considered as major hindrances. Seven of the eight socio-cultural factors: early marriage, early pregnancy, fear of sexual harassment and rape, parents’ preference for educating boys to educating girls, low perception of the community towards girls’ education, girls' low self esteem, and low decision-making power of Gumuz women in development activities were found to be the major barriers for Gumuz girls' primary school participation in the district. Participation of Gumuz girls in primary schools in the district, in most cases, was found to be more a function of the out-of-school socio-economic and socio-cultural factors than of institutional factors. The study recommended the importance of giving attention to the demand side of policy intervention to address the problem of Gumuz girls' primary school participation.
RAPE AWARENESS, PREVALENCE, PREVENTIVE STRATEGIES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING IN ETHIOPIA:
CASES OF DEBUB AND ALEMAYA UNIVERSITIES
Demewoz Admasu Gebru
Rape has a long and disturbing history in many societies of the world but is perceived as less a problem of women, especially in traditional societies such as Ethiopia. Empirically speaking, though most females are either actual or potential victims of rape and suffer from its immediate and long-lasting impacts, to date no research has been attempted to study the problem in institutions of higher learning in Ethiopia. This work is an attempt to study whether rape is a problem encountered by female students in institutions of higher learning and, if so, to what extent it is a problem, what is done at present and what should be done in future. Data were gathered using a questionnaire consisting of demographic questions, awareness questions, questions on rape occurrence and reporting, measures taken by concerned parties, the preventive strategies, services rendered, and future directions was administered to informants. In total 300 female students from two universities that were selected using convenient sampling participated in the study in the 2000/01 Academic Year. The questionnaire was supplemented by interview and documentary analysis. The result showed that a significant proportion of female students were either potential or actual victims of rape, i.e. about 95 per cent of them fear rape, about 26 per cent reported its occurrence in the colleges/universities, and about five per cent experienced rape. Female students in the selected institutions of higher learning are affected personally, academically, socially, emotionally, and so forth.