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Education for Nationhood: Re-thinking the 2007 Post-Election Violence in Kenya
Nabiswa M. Wasike

The training of youth in responsible citizenship has a major goal of education the world over. Kenya has not been an exception to this norm since independence. The Ominde commission Report , sessional paper  No.10 of 1965, and vision 2030 identified education as a critical pillar in the promotion of national cohesion. Although this objective has been restated in various educational policy documents, available evidence points to a clear mismatch and lack of interest in implementing a strong and viable civic education curriculum in Kenyan schools. Consequently, the system of education has become too mechanical and opportunistic as evidenced by its emphasis on examinations. this paper argues that the unfortunate events that followed the disputed 2007 General Election in Kenya can partly be blamed on the country’s lethargic apposes a new approach to civic education programme in its schools. The paper proposes a new approach that can help foster nationhood in Kenya.

Adaptation of Colonial Animal Husbandry Curriculum to the Environment of Kenya’s Maasailand. 1900-1956
A.K. Ronoh, L. W. Chiuri and T.K.Ronoh

This study examined the physical and socio-cultural environments of Kenya’s Maasailand and traced the introduction and experimental adaptation of the colonial Animal Husbandry curriculum to those environments. Research techniques that helped to collect data for the study were: direct observations, respondent interviews, and archival and library search. The Animal Husbandry curriculum was supposedly in keeping with the Maasai environments and it was believed in official circles that it  would make Maasai pastoralists to patronise schools. However, the study established that certain challenges inhibited the process, leading to poor reception of western Education by the Maasai. The colonial Animal Husbandry curriculum was dropped in favour of Rural Science in 1956 and a new cycle of experimentation set in.

Ogiek Indigenous Beliefs and Practices as Imperative for Sustainable Conservation of the Mau Forest, Kenya
T.K.Ronoh, F.S.Barasa, F.O.Ogola, A.K.Ronoh, R.M.Matheka and S.L.Micheni

Environmental conservation in many parts of the world presents a daunting task owing to factors like population increase. In Kenya, for example, environmental degradation has occurred at an alarming rate in areas such as the Mau Forest, home to the majority of the Ogiek  people, Traditionally, the ogiek are hunter-gathereers who have a distinctive history of environmental conservation. But since the beginning of colonialism in the late 1990s, the community has been marginalized through appropriation of parts of the Mau Forest for other uses. The forest is in the Rift Valley province and straddles Kericho, Nakuru, Narok and Bomet districts. This paper examines the influence of Ogiek indigenous beliefs and practices on environmental conservation. The study was informed by the General Systems and Cultural Ecology theories. An Ethno-historical approach was employed in the design, instrumentation, data collection, analysis and interpretation. Purposive sampling techniques were used to draw a sample of fourty-five community members, mainly cultural consultants, from seven sites in the Mau Forest for interviews. The informants were individually interviewed on aspects of traditional Ogiek life that influenced environmental conservation. In addition to interviews and observation, the study used various documentary sources which were subjected to external and internal criticism and the information was checked for validity and reliability using triangulation. The results showed that Ogiek religious beliefs and cultural practices were an integral part of the community’s environmental conservation strategies, suggesting the need for integration of indigenous knowledge systems into modern environmental management strategies.

Enhancing Farm forestry through Private Three Nurseries: The Case of Uasin Gishu Country, Kenya
Grephas P. Opata, Beatrice N. Mbula and Eliud Kireger

Forests play an important role in environmental conservation and protection. They protect water catchment areas, contribute significantly to carbon sequestration, conserve biodiversity and generally ameliorate the climate. These factors are essential for sustainable development worldwide, thus  the need to conserve and protect forests. The resource is on the decline globally, the developing countries having contributed to this more due to rapid deforestation and opening up of virgin forests for agriculture among other factors. With a rapidly growing population, it is imperative that new strategies be formulated to avert this crisis. Farm forestry has been seen as a viable way to provide forest products and services at the farm level, as well as supplement the supply from government owned forests in many parts of the world. Planting of indigenous trees on farm can effectively be geared towards protection of water catchment  areas as well as boost biodiversity conservation at the farm level for the public good. This paper assesses the capacity of private tree nurseries to support catchment protection and biodiversity conservation on farms in uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The overall objective of the study was to establish the county. It was established that farm forestry has great potential in reversing the decline of the forest cover in the county. It is recommended that deliberate efforts be made to encourage and increase the production and planting of indigenous trees on farms. If this is not done, there could be a complete loss of indigenous tree species with time.

Farmers’ Revolts in Central Kenya in the 1990s
Reuben M. Matheka

The paper analyses farmers’ revolts in the Mounts in Kenya region in the 1990s in the context of changes wrought by economic and political liberalization. it argues that there was a link between the twin processes of economic and political reforms in Kenya in the 1990s on the one hand and farmers’ protests on the other. This was especially so in central Kenya where farmers in the coffee, tea and rice sub-sectors variously defied the state and its agencies in what they considered to be struggles for genuine liberalisation of the agricultural sector. The struggles included demonstrations and withholding of produce to press for higher producer prices, calls for the registration of farmers’ banks, agitation for rationalization of co-operative societies, demands for farmers’ right to decide who should process and market their produce, protests against irregular payment for delivered produce, insistence on competitive bidding for inputs, calls for the streamlining of tax structures, and insistence on farmers’ right to control utilisation of cess. In short, farmers in the Mount Kenya region waged struggles against state-sanctioned practices that had become the cause of high surplus appropriation in the agricultural sector.

Counter-terrorism Strategies by Kenya against Somalia Terrorism
K. Onkware, E.O.S.Odhiambo and O.M.Ntabo

Terrorism has been a worrying issue in the Horn of Africa since the Terrorist Attack in Kenya in 1998.Another attack was launched in 2002 in kikambala, a coastal hotel in Kenya. Subsequently, Kenya joined other countries in implementing the political and military objectives of the war on Terror; a phrase that was coned by then US president George W. Bush. The Kenyan government received legal, technical and financial support to implement new counter-terrorism structures. However, these have raised concerns about human rights and the people’s freedoms. This article examines causes of Somalia terrorism, counter-terrorism approaches by Kenya and then makes recommendations based on the discussion therein. With the June 2010   grenade attack on a Christian rally in uhuru park, Nairobi, and the July 2010 killings of soccer fans in Uganda, the Al shabaab remains a real terrorist threat to the region. Consequently, there is need to address this threat. We argue that for counter-terrorism to be effective in the East African region, and in particular Kenya, marginalized regions such as North Eastern and coast provinces where Al shabaab finds sypmathisers must be given priority in terms of development.

The Agency of Drama and Theater: Postcoloniality, History and the Culture of Justice
Nicholas Kamau-Goro

Although drama has played a crucial role in the development of national cultures and audiences, it has received little attention in postcolonial studies. Scholars have tended to focus on prose fiction, and more lately, on poetry. However, drama raises many issues that are central to postcolonial cultures such as questions of history and identity. In this article, I examine these issues as they relate to ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s and Mĩcere Mũgo’s, The Trial of Dedan Kimathi whereas history has conventionally been seen as relating to the past, I show that by raising critical questions relating to the production and dissemination of knowledge in a post-colony, the play illustrates how imaginative writer social and scientists can use the consciousness of the past to mid-wife a more equitable national culture.

The Relationship between Hip Hop Music and Aggression among secondary School Youth in Kenya
Lydia A. Mareri

Aggressive behaviour among the youth has been associated with the youth exposure to violent hip music among other factors in society. This study intended to investigate the relationship between violence in hip hop music and aggression among school going youth aged between fourteen and nineteen years in Kenya. It focused  on school, which participated in the 2009 Annual Kenya Music festival, Rift valley province, held in Narok district. The study was guided by two theories: Observational Learning Theory and Aggressive Cue theory. Two co-curricular (mixed) secondary schools were purposively sampled, one urban-and one rural-based. The sample comprised 24 respondents who were picked purposively based on their gender, seniority and geographic background. A questionnaire was used to collect information from respondents. It contained both structured and unstructured questions. Data were analysed using both qualitative and quantitative data analysis procedures. the study established that most young people imitate violent behaviour from violent hip hop music. This is because a large percentage of these youth perceive most hip hop artists as idols and role models. Violent words used in hip hop music lyrics also influence the speech mannerisms of these youth. Likewise, the violent themes preached in such hip hop lyrics negatively affect the youth’s attitudes towards different forms of authority in society, including school.

Influence of Free Primary Education on the Quality of Teaching and Learning in Public Primary Schools in Mery South District, Kenya
Elias Eric Mwenda, Zachariah K, Mbungua and Fredrick O. Ogola

The implementation of free primary Education in Kenya in 2003 has witnessed many challenges. Which raise questions with respect to the quality of the education offered. Hence the need to investigate the influence of free primary  Education on the quality of teaching and learning in public primary schools in Meru south  District, Kenya. A cross sectional survey research design used where a total of 152 teachers and 190 standard seven pupils were randomly selected to provide a sample size of 342 subject. Questionnaires were used and the data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. The findings indicate that quality of education has been negatively affected by inadequate number of teachers and by inadequacy of teaching and learning facilities. The Government of Kenya needs to employ more teachers since the quality of education is pegged on teacher effectiveness and adequacy. The Government should also provide more learning and leaching resources and facilities.

Effects of Concept Mapping Teaching Strategy on Students’ Creativity in Physics Education in Nyando District, Kenya
Mark I.O. Okere, Johnson M. Changeiywo and Tom A. Illa

This study investigated the effect of using the concept Mapping Teaching strategy (CMTS) on the development of students’ creativity in physics education. The aspects of scientific creativity investigated were recognition of relationship and planning. Solomon four-Group Quasi Experimental Design was used. A sample of 124 form three students selected randomly from four mixed secondary schools in Nyando District, Kenya, participated. Tow instruments, namely physics creativity Test (PCT) and concept Mapping Assessment Test (CMAT),were used. The (PCT) was used to assess students’ level of creativity in the topic ‘’Energy’’. It was administered as per-test and post-test. The CMAT was used to assess the quality of concept maps constructed by the students. The experimental groups were trained on concept map construction for two weeks. Data were analysed using the t-test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA), at an alpha of 0.05 level significance. The results showed that students who were trained using CMTS obtained significantly higher scores in the physics creativity test than those not subjected to the strategy. The researchers concluded that CMTS is effective in inculcating creativity skills in secondary school physics students. Teachers and other stakeholders in education should therefore include the use of CMTS in their lessons and the secondary school curriculum in order to enhance creativity among students and for Kenya to achieve its intended objectives for self-reliance in 2030.

Improving Kenyan College Students’ Communicative Competence for Professional Practices: An Analysis of Errors in Written and Oral Performance
Beatrice W. Micheni and Yahobo J.K. Mutiti

The teaching of communicative English is an integral part of the curriculum that for the middle-level colleges in Kenya. There is growing concern that the average student lacks the requisite communicative ability both for academic purpose and for social integration. Many of the students suffer grammatical incompetence; this is an aspect that directly related to inability to conceptualise structural elements either at the level of the morpheme or the syntagm. College student commit errors of   these tow types. These had not been analysed so far. This paper covers a research carried out on the written and spoken errors emanating from middle-level Kenyan college students’ language performance. The research was undertaken between 2005 and 2008 at the Rift Valley Institute of science and Technology, the Eldoret polytechnic, and the Kenyan Industrial Training Institute. A total of 118 students were involved in the study. Individual Language-learner language was examined through an Error Analysis elicited by means of communicative tasks in essay writing, cloze test, and a guided oral discussion. The study established a repertoire of error types and arrived at an understanding of the psycholinguistic and communicative dimensions that correlate with these errors. The findings can be used by curriculum planners and educators to formulate intervention strategies and remedial measures at all levels.


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